Anyone traveling to an area where yellow fever is known to exist should find out about having the vaccine at least 10 to 14 days before departure. Some countries may insist on a valid immunization certificate before a person can enter.

A single vaccine dose provides at least 10 years’Trusted Source protection, and the person may be protected for life.

Side effects may include:

  • Headaches
  • Low-grade fevers
  • Muscle pain
  • Tiredness
  • Soreness at the injection site

In very rare cases, infants and older people may develop more serious reactions, such as encephalitis.

The vaccine is deemed to be safe for patients aged between 9 months and 60 years. The following groups of people should not have the vaccination:

  • Children aged under 9 months in the United States (U.S.), unless the risk of yellow fever is unavoidable
  • Pregnant women, unless the risk is unavoidable
  • Breastfeeding mothers
  • People who are allergic to eggs

People with weakened immune systems, unless the risk of yellow fever is unavoidable, including those with HIV, or people receiving chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Any patient over 60 years of age should discuss whether to have the vaccine with a doctor. It is important for travelers to have the vaccination, to increase their protection and avoid spreading the disease to others. Some immigration authorities will not allow travelers to enter a country without a valid vaccination certificate.

After 30 days, 99 percentTrusted Source who receive the vaccination has complete protection.

  • Protection from mosquitos

To reduce exposure to mosquitos, experts advise:

  • Where possible, avoid outdoor activities during dawn, dusk and early evening, when mosquitoes are most prevalent.
  • Cover the skin as much as possible, by wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants in areas where there are mosquitoes.
  • Stay indoors in places that have air-conditioning and good screening, such as window nets
  • Apply mosquito repellent containing permethrin to clothing, shoes, camping equipment, and bed netting, but not directly on the skin

Skin repellents containing DEET or picaridin provide protection from mosquitoes for a longer time than other products.

The higher the concentration, the longer it will last. Do not use DEET on young children’s hands or infants aged under 2 months. Instead, cover their stroller with mosquito netting when outdoors.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says that oil of lemon eucalyptus offers the same protection as DEET when used in the same concentrations. However, it is not suitable for children under 3 years of age.

  • Outlook

Most people do not develop symptoms, but those who do may experience weakness and tiredness for several months. Among those who develop severe symptoms, the fatality rate is between 20 and 50 percentTrusted Source.