What is Jerusalem Artichoke?
Jerusalem Artichoke, scientifically known as Helianthus tuberosus, is also known as sunchokes or sunroots. Jerusalem tubers feature gray, purple, or pink skin externally, and sweet, delicate textured ice-white flesh inside. Some roots have quite bumpy and extremely knobby outer surface.
Jerusalem artichoke is moderately high in calories; provides about 73 calories per 100 g, roughly equivalent to that of potatoes. The root has negligible amounts of fat and contains zero cholesterol. Nevertheless, its high-quality phytochemical profile comprises of dietary fiber (non-starch carbohydrates), and antioxidants, in addition to small proportions of minerals, and vitamins.
History Of Jerusalem Artichoke
Despite one of its names, the Jerusalem artichoke has no relationship to Jerusalem, and it is not a type of artichoke, though the two are distantly related as members of the daisy family. The origin of the “Jerusalem” part of the name is uncertain. Italian settlers in the United States called the plant girasole, the Italian word for sunflower, because of its familial relationship to the garden sunflower (both plants are members of the genus Helianthus). Over time, the name girasole (pronounced closer to [d͡ʒiraˈzu:l] in southern Italian dialects) may have been changed to Jerusalem. In other words, English speakers would have corrupted “girasole artichoke” (meaning, “sunflower artichoke”) to Jerusalem artichoke.
Another explanation for the name is that the Puritans, when they came to the New World, named the plant with regard to the “New Jerusalem” they believed they were creating in the wilderness.Also, various other names have been applied to the plant, such as the French or Canada potato, topinambour, and lambchoke. Sunchoke, a name by which it is still known today, was invented in the 1960s by Frieda Caplan, a produce wholesaler who was trying to revive the plant’s appeal. The artichoke part of the Jerusalem artichoke’s name comes from the taste of its edible tuber. Samuel de Champlain, the French explorer, sent the first samples of the plant to France, noting its taste was similar to that of an artichoke.
The name topinambur, in one account, dates from 1615, when a member of the Brazilian coastal tribe called the Tupinambá visited the Vatican at the same time that a sample of the tuber from Canada was on display there, presented as a critical food source that helped French Canadian settlers survive the winter. The New World connection resulted in the name topinambur being applied to the tuber, the word now used in French, German, Italian, Romanian, Russian, and Spanish.
Nutrition Value of Jerusalem Artichoke
Jerusalem artichokes, also called sunchokes, aren’t like regular artichokes. These root vegetables have a taste that’s similar to water chestnuts, and you can eat them raw or cooked. If you eat them cooked, they have a creamy texture and you can use them in ways similar to potatoes. Jerusalem artichokes provide a number of vitamins and minerals and may provide some health benefits because of their role as a prebiotic.
Amount Per 100 grams
- Calories 73
- Cholesterol 0 mg
- Sodium 4 mg
- Potassium 429 mg – 12% RDA
- Total Carbohydrate 17 g – 5% RDA
- Dietary fiber 1.6 g – 6% RDA
- Sugar 10 g
- Protein 2 g – 4% RDA
- Vitamin C 6% RDA
- Calcium 1% RDA
- Iron 18% RDA
- Vitamin B-6 5% RDA
- Magnesium 4% RDA]
A 1-cup serving of sliced, raw Jerusalem artichokes contains 110 calories, 3 grams of protein and 26.2 grams of carbohydrates, including 2.4 grams of fiber, or 25 percent of the daily value. Fiber may help lower your risk for high cholesterol, constipation, heart disease and certain types of cancer, according to the University of Arizona Extension. It may also make it easier to control your blood sugar levels and maintain a healthy weight.
Each serving of Jerusalem artichokes has 10 percent of the daily value for vitamin C and niacin, and 30 percent of the DV for thiamine. Vitamin C acts as an antioxidant and limits the damage to cells that free radicals cause; higher intakes of vitamin C may help lower your heart disease and stroke risk, according to the Linus Pauling Institute. Niacin and thiamine are B vitamins that help keep your hair, skin and eyes healthy, and that turn the food you eat into energy for your body.
Eating a cup of sliced sunchokes provides you with 11 percent of the DV for copper, 12 percent of the DV for phosphorus, 18 percent of the DV for potassium and 28 percent of the DV for iron. You need copper and iron for forming red blood cells that carry oxygen in your body to where it’s needed, and potassium plays a role in forming proteins. Phosphorus helps form strong bones and DNA.
Most of the carbohydrates in sunchokes are in the form of inulin. Inulin acts as a prebiotic, providing a source of food for beneficial probiotic organisms in your body. Probiotics may help improve your immune function, produce vitamins, lower your cholesterol and prevent disease-causing bacteria from multiplying. Consuming prebiotics may be an easier way to increase the probiotic organisms in your body than taking probiotic supplements, because you don’t have to worry about them surviving the digestive process like you would with probiotics. A study published in the “British Journal of Nutrition” in 2010 found that drinking fruit and vegetable juice shots that contained inulin from sunchokes increased the amount of certain types of probiotic bacteria in the body.
A Good Source of Protein:
There are many tubers that people eat, but none are as protein-rich as the Jerusalem Artichokes. You can make healthy stocks and soups using this tuber. The protein makes it the perfect vegetable to add to your diet.
Great Detox Agent:
The tuber contains amino acids, which are rich in sulfur. This is essential for your diet and is helpful for your health. This sulfur-rich amino acid keeps the connective tissues flexible. This in turn allows our liver to easily detoxify our body.
Most of our diets today cut out important minerals like iron. Our body requires iron for proper blood flow and clotting of blood. This tuber offers an essential dose of iron to our body, which can easily assimilate.
Amazing Health Benefits of Jerusalem Artichoke
1. Oral Health
Jerusalem Artichoke has huge amount of phosphorous which is essential for bone and teeth health. Phosphorus along with calcium and vitamin D plays an important role in formation and maintenance of dental health by supporting tooth enamel, jaw bone mineral density. Also help to heal tooth decay. Vitamin D is required along with phosphorus to control the body’s balance of calcium and improve its absorption during tooth formation. Vitamin D can also help to decrease inflammation of gums which is related with periodontal gum disease.
Nutrition Health Benefits of Jerusalem Artichoke
2. Boosts Immunity
Antioxidant vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E are available in Jerusalem artichoke in minimal amounts. All these vitamins along with flavonoid compounds like carotenes helps seek and remove free radicals, providing the body protection from cancers, viral cough, inflammation and common cold.
3. Regulates Blood Pressure
Jerusalem artichoke has considerable amount of potassium and minimal amount of sodium, which is helpful in lowering blood pressure. The fiber content in jerusalem artichoke is supportive in improving the performance of insulin in the body, which helps in the lowering of blood pressure.
4. Heart Health
Jerusalem artichoke consists of sufficient amount of Thiamine which is essential for producing neurotransmitter called acetylcholine which is used to relay message between nerves and muscle. Our heart is one of the main muscles that rely on these crucial signals. So as to maintain proper cardiac function and healthy heart beat rhythms, the nerves and muscles must be able to use bodily energy to keep signaling to each other.
5. Helps Prevent Premature Aging
Copper is a powerful antioxidant which is present in Jerusalem artichoke which works in presence of antioxidant superoxide dismutase to safeguard the cell membranes from free radicals. It is one of the powerful antioxidant which helps to fight against free radicals. Free radicals may attack several organs systems but are particularly studied in terms of their effects on aging like age spots, wrinkles, macular degeneration as well as kidney malfunctions. Therefore sufficient amount of Copper is required for looking younger for longer time.
6. Muscle Function
Jerusalem artichoke has iron which is essential for better musle health. Iron is present in the muscle tissue and helps to provide the supply of oxygen which is needed for contraction of muscles. Without sufficient iron muscle will lose its tone and elasticity which leads to muscle weakness and muscle weakness is one of the major indication of anemia.
7. Aids in Digestion
Jerusalem artichoke has prebiotic effect, this helps stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract by acting as a substrate for them. Jerusalem artichokes contain plenty of inulin, which stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria and fights harmful bacteria.
Jerusalem artichokes are loaded with B-vitamins, including thiamine (B1). Thiamine helps with the hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Lack of hydrochloric acid may impair protein digestion and cause stomach pain by inhibiting the activation of the enzyme pepsin. Also, the tuber is a good source of dietary fiber. Fiber is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants. A high-fiber diet can normalize bowel movements
8. Regulates Blood Sugar
Jerusalem artichoke are low in the glycemic index. This means that the Jerusalem artichoke provides a slow and stable rise and fall in blood glucose levels. The glycemic index (GI) classifies foods and beverages based on their ability to increase the level of glucose in the blood. Carbohydrates in foods with a high GI score break down into simple sugars quickly and cause blood glucose levels to spike. This peak is followed by a sharp drop in blood glucose levels. Studies suggest that the fluctuating blood glucose levels linked with eating high GI foods may significantly increase the risk of fatigue, heart disease, altered mood, resistance, and diabetes.
9. Helps control cholesterol
Soluble fiber, found in the Jerusalem artichoke, may help lower total blood cholesterol levels by lowering low-density lipoprotein, or “bad,” cholesterol levels. Studies suggested that fiber may have other heart-health benefits, such as reducing blood pressure and inflammation.
10. Prevents Colon Cancer
The tuber might not directly have any effect on colon cancer. But it is a known fact that dietary fiber insulin, which is derived from this tuber, is used to suppress colon cancer. Including Jerusalem Artichoke in your diet can go a long way to prevent colon cancer.
11. The Jerusalem artichoke can help blood glucose levels.
The glycemic index (GI) classifies foods and beverages based on their ability to increase the level of glucose in the blood. Carbohydrates in foods with a high GI score break down into simple sugars quickly and cause blood glucose levels to spike. This peak is followed by a sharp drop in blood glucose levels. Studies suggest that the fluctuating blood glucose levels linked with eating high GI foods may significantly increase the risk of fatigue, heart disease, altered mood, resistance, and diabetes. The Jerusalem artichoke contains a glycemic value of 11 and is considered a low GI food. This means that the Jerusalem artichoke provides a slow and stable rise and fall in blood glucose levels.
12. The Jerusalem artichoke can help with blood formation.
Copper and iron are essential for the new blood cell formation. One cup of the Jerusalem artichoke contains 28 percent and 20 percent of the daily recommended value of iron and copper, respectively. A deficiency in iron can lead to anemia.
13. Dietary Supplement:
There are many historical records of this tuber being used as a dietary supplement. This is because the tuber contains many nutrients that are good for our bodies. Using Jerusalem Artichokes as a dietary supplement ensures that our body gets its fill of nutrients.
14. Prevents Colon Cancer:
The tuber might not directly have any effect on colon cancer. But it is a known fact that dietary fiber insulin, which is derived from this tuber, is used to suppress colon cancer. Including Jerusalem Artichoke in your diet can go a long way to prevent colon cancer.
15. Intestinal Immunity:
There are many diseases that can crop up due to the food we eat. One way to remain healthy is to allow the good bacteria in our gut to kill the bad bacteria. This healthy tuber boosts intestinal immunity and keeps our bodies healthy. These are a few of the known benefits that one can enjoy by consuming Jerusalem Artichokes on a regular basis. There are many more! So, what is keeping you from enjoying this healthy tuber?
Uses Of Jerusalem Artichoke
Also known as sunchoke, the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is native to eastern United States and Mexico and belongs to large Compositae family that includes lettuces, globe artichokes and sunflowers. In spite of its title, the Jerusalem artichoke doesn’t have relation to Jerusalem and it’s also not just a kind of artichoke. The plant look like a sunflower, but it also yields a large number of edible tubers that are knobbly and look a lot like ginger in appearance. Tubers are smaller, sweeter, crisper and nuttier than potatoes. As the Latin name recommends, Jerusalem artichokes develop tubers that are the edible portion of this plant. This plant is not related to the globe artichoke whose edible portion is the developing flower bud. Earth Apple, Sunflower Artichoke, Topinambur, Canada Potato, Sun root, Woodland Sunflower, Girasole, Jerusalem Artichoke, Jerusalem sunflower and Sun choke are some of the popular common names of Jerusalem Artichoke.
Jerusalem artichoke is a tall, hardy, herbaceous perennial that grows up to 1.5–3 m high with a yellow flower like a sunflower. It will grow in any soil but prefers friable, moderately well-drained soil in full sun to partial shade. It does best in temperate climates. It has fibrous roots with thin cord-like rhizomes that grow as long as 50 inches. Stems grow as tall as 12 feet, and are stout, rough, ridged and hairy. Stems will become woody over time. Leaves are opposite (2 leaves per node) on the lower part of the stem, and alternate (1 leaf per node) near the top of the stem. Leaves are 4 to 10 inches long and almost heart-shaped with a broad oval base and pointed tip. The thick leaves have 3 distinct main veins, coarsely-toothed margins, and attach to the stem by way of a winged stalk (petiole). The upper leaf surface has coarse hairs while the lower surface has soft hairs. Flowers are yellow and produced in capitate flower heads that are 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in) in diameter, with 10–20 ray florets and 60 or smaller disc florets. Fruits are Cypselae 5–7 mm, glabrous or distally hairy; pappi with 2 aristate scales and 0–1 deltoid scales. Seeds are smooth, wedge-shaped, and gray or brown with black mottling.
Jerusalem artichoke is cultivated widely across the temperate zone for its tuber that is used as a root vegetable. The tubers are knobby, round clusters, elongated and uneven, ranging in size from 7.5 to 10 cm long, 3–5 cm thick, with nodes, internodes and eyes and unclearly resembling ginger root. It is normally pale brown to white, red and purple in color while the inner flesh in white in color. It has nutty flavor which is similar to artichoke and has sweet nutty taste. The peak season for Jerusalem artichoke harvesting is from March and May. Due to its nutty taste and beneficial nutrients it is found used in several food items as well as ancient traditional medications.
Jerusalem Artichoke Recipe
Hearty venison sunchoke stew recipe
This is one of my husband’s favourite recipes, as it reminds him of the stew his mother made on the chilly fall days of Northern Ontario. His mother was a teacher, and she would assemble these ingredients quickly in the morning and then place them in a slow cooker. When he arrived home, the house would smell simply delicious. Little did he know how good it was for him too!
2 tbsp (30 mL) extra virgin olive oil
2 cups (500 mL) red onions, chopped
3 cloves garlic, minced
2 cups (500 mL) sunchokes, chopped
2 cups (500 mL) carrots, chopped
1 tsp (5 mL) pink rock or grey sea salt
1 lb (454 g) venison or beef stew meat
1 quart (1 L) vegetable broth
1 cup (250 mL) water
2 tbsp (30 mL) fresh rosemary, minced
- Over medium-high heat, sauté oil, onion, garlic, sunchokes, carrots and salt for 5-7 minutes.
- Add meat, broth, water and rosemary. Bring to a light boil, then reduce heat to low.
- Cover and simmer for 45 minutes or longer.
Yield: Makes 6 servings
Roasted Jerusalem Artichokes (or Sunchokes)
- 1 pound Jerusalem artichokes (sunchokes)
- 3/4 cup olive oil
- 2 tablespoons dried thyme
- 1 tablespoon minced garlic
- sea salt to taste
- Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C).
- Scrub Jerusalem artichoke tubers and cut out eyes. Cut tubers into 1-inch pieces.
- Mix olive oil, thyme, garlic, and sea salt together in a large bowl; add Jerusalem artichoke pieces and toss to coat. Arrange coated pieces in one evenly-spaced layer on a baking sheet.
- Roast in the preheated oven until Jerusalem artichokes are tender, 35 to 45 minutes.
Sautéed Jerusalem artichokes with garlic and bay leaves
- 600 g Jerusalem artichokes
- olive oil
- a few bay leaves
- 2 cloves garlic
- 1 splash white wine vinegar
- Jerusalem artichokes are sweet and almost garlicky and mushroomy and gorgeous. Although called artichokes they’re actually tubers – like rough and ready potatoes. You can scrub and roast them whole like mini jacket potatoes and split them open, drizzled with a little chilli oil. You can even use them in a salad with smoky bacon. A Jerusalem artichoke’s best friends are sage, thyme, butter, bacon, bay, cream, breadcrumbs, cheese and anything smoked.
- To serve 4, you will need 600 g/1 lb 6oz of Jerusalem artichokes. Peel them, then cut them into chunks. Place them in an oiled frying pan and fry on a medium heat until golden on both sides, then add a few bay leaves, 2 cloves of garlic, finely sliced, a splash of white wine vinegar, some salt and pepper, and place a lid on top. After about 20 to 25 minutes they will have softened up nicely and you can remove the lid and the bay leaves. Continue cooking for a couple of minutes to crisp the artichoke slices up one last time, then serve straight away. Personally, I think they go well with both meat and fish and are particularly good in a plate of antipasti, or in soups or warm salads.
Sunchoke VS. Sweet Potato
Which is the Better Permaculture Crop?
1. Highest Edible Yield: Sunchokes
Sunchokes yield 2.5 kg or more of edible tubers per plant
Potatoes yield around 1 kg of edible tubers per plant
2. Most Useful: Sunchokes
Sunchokes produce a 3 metre tall stalk that can be composted, or used as animal fodder
Potatoes produce a ½ metre tall plant with alkaloids in the leaves, and shouldn’t be composted near other nighshades (tobacco, petunias, tomatoes, peppers).
3. Least Labour: Sunchokes
Sunchokes are perennial in zones 4-8, and can be a winter crop in warmer zones. They can be dug up as needed as long as the ground isn’t frozen. They are less destructive to soil integrity, because they require less tilling. They are seldom bothered with diseases.
Potatoes must be dug up and re-planted every year, as well as requiring “hilling” for higher yields. They require a significant amount of soil disturbance for cultivation. Potatoes are unfortunately prone to diseases, and share blights and other fungal pathogens with other nightshades.
4. Most Aesthetically-Appealling: Sunchokes
Sunchokes produce a stunning 3-metre tall sunflower-like blossom
Potatoes are attractive enough plants, but have to be planted in rows, and die back dramatically before harvest.
5. Easiest to Use: Sunchokes
Sunchokes can be eaten raw, and taste like a water chestnut. They can also be baked in less than 25 minutes.
Potatoes are not ideally consumed raw, and usually take around an hour to bake.
6. Longest-Storing: It depends
As long as sunchokes are stored in soil, above 0˚, they are edible. They can be layered in a container with soil in a cool area until spring. They don’t, however, last more than three weeks once cleaned and in the kitchen.
Potatoes can last around three months once dug up and placed in a cool dark place.
7. Healthiest: It depends
Sunchokes are a high source of fibre, and are often eaten by diabetics instead of potatoes, because their main carbohydrate, inulin, does not readily break down in the human digestive system (it is a: “zero calorie saccharine, and inert carbohydrate). They are fat-free, and also higher in potassium and iron than almost all root vegetables.
Potatoes are also high in fibre, but starchier, and not fat-free. They do, however, have a higher content of b-complex vitamins than sunchokes, and the flavonoid antoxidant quercetin. They are also
Which is the better permaculture crop overall? Sunchokes, of course.
This isn’t, however, a recommendation to stop growing potatoes altogether.
Rather, it’s a suggestion to transition some of the potato plot to other, more useful and sustainable perennial root crops.
How To Grow Jerusalem Artichoke
This statuesque plant is a relative of the sunflower. Although it boasts attractive yellow flowers perched on 3m (10ft) stems, it is mainly grown for its below-ground tubers that can be cooked or eaten raw. Needing plenty of space to grow, this perennial is ideal when planted as a windbreak or screen.
Jerusalem artichoke is not started from seed, but from tubers. Buy them in March and April from a garden centre or online supplier. Plant into well-prepared soil, planting at a depth of 10-15cm (4-6in) with tubers spaced 30cm (12in) apart. If you have an allotment or are particularly fond of Jerusalem artichokes, space rows 1.5m (5ft) apart. Tubers can also be grown in a large tubs filled with good compost.
When stems are around 30cm (12in) tall, draw soil around them to a depth of 30cm 15cm (6in) to help stabilise plants as they grow. Cut back stems (including flowerheads) to around 1.5m (5ft) in midsummer so plants won’t be rocked by the wind, thus avoiding the need for staking. Only water in cases of severe drought.
As these plants do grow tall, they can make an effective screen, but may need some support in very exposed and windy sites. A cage made from stout stakes and strong twine will suffice. When foliage starts to turn yellow in autumn, prune to leave 8cm (3in) stumps above ground level. Place the prunings over plants to keep the soil warm and aid lifting of tubers in frosty weather.
Slugs and snails: These feed on the young seedlings and you’ll see the tell tale slime trail on the soil around your crop, as well as on the leaves.
Remedy: There are many ways to control slugs and snails, including beer traps, sawdust or eggshell barriers, copper tape and biocontrols.
Sclerotina: When infected by this fungal disease, plants rot at the base and a white fluffy mould may grow on affected parts.
Remedy: This disease can remain in the soil for a long time, so immediately destroy any infected plants to prevent it from entering the soil. Do not compost the stems.
Harvest the tubers as required with a garden fork from late autumn into winter. Jerusalem artichokes are persistent, so if you don’t want them coming back the following year, make sure you remove every last one – tubers left in the ground will regrow into a large plant the following spring. Scrub and boil or steam until tender, then peel. Jerusalem artichokes have a tasty nutty flavour, but they contain a carbohydrate that is not broken down during digestion and can cause wind.
Nigel Slater uses Jerusalem artichokes in his Artichoke soup with ginger and walnuts, to make a creamy seasonal recipe.
‘Fuseau’:A large, smooth-skinned cultivar, that is easy to peel.
‘Dwarf Sunray’:Long, smooth skinned tubers.
Negative Effects Of Jerusalem Artichoke
Despite all the positive and healthy facts about Jerusalem artichokes, caution must still be exercised when taking this as a food source. This is because sesquiterpene lactone found in the plant is an allergen component. Individuals allergic to plants under the Compositae family (like daisy, sunflower, chrysanthemum, and dandelion) may also be allergic to sunchokes.
For those with low tolerance for inulin and fructose, taking too much Jerusalem artichoke may cause abdominal pain, bloating, and flatulence. Lastly, the amount of sunchokes eaten per day should be limited. Eating more than 10 grams of inulin found in one-fourth cup of sunchokes may be harmful. So basically, eat one or two medium-sized sunchokes daily or every other day.
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